shortcut method in statistics formula

Linear regression analysis is based on six fundamental assumptions: 1. The most common descriptive statistics are in the following table, along with their formulas and a short description of what each one measures. Class-10Karnataka Board - Shortcut Method To Find Variance and Standard Deviation - LearnNext offers animated video lessons with neatly explained examples, … The closer that the absolute value of r is to one, the better that the data are described by a linear equation. ... Profit and loss shortcuts. In case of individual series, we just have to inspect … For a population, the variance is calculated as σ² = ( Σ (x-μ)² ) / N. Another equivalent formula is σ² = ( (Σ x²) / N ) - μ². Assumed Mean method or Shortcut method. You can easily calculate kurtosis in Excel using the Descriptive Statistics Excel Calculator. In an inclusive method, the class interval may be taken as 0 to 10, 11 to 20, and 21 to 30 and so on. method. After this do remaining ten questions and apply shortcut formula on those math problems. μ = Population mean. The Excel Statistical functions are all listed in the tables below, grouped into categories, to help you to easily find the function you need. The value of the residual (error) is zero. The residual (error) values follow the normal distribution. 5. If x i and f i are numerically large, the assumed mean method is preferred. After finish write down total time taken by you to solve those ten maths. In an inclusive method, the class interval may be taken as 0 to 10, 11 to 20, and 21 to 30 and so on. Chapter 14 : STATISTICS KEY POINTS. (ii) Shortcut method (or) Step deviation method. You don’t have to use the shortcut method. (i) Calculation of Arithmetic Mean by Direct Method: Daily Expenditure (Rs.) Now go through our page for permutation and combination shortcut trick. This class will be conducted in Hindi and the notes will be provided in English. Ratio and proportion shortcuts. The three measures of central tendency are : i. The probability of getting at least one question from Statistics is 100%. These examples will help you to understand shortcut tricks on Probability. ... Jitendra Dave will discuss tips & tricks to explain the method to learn formula and questions on Regressions. Kurtosis is one of the summary statistics; it is used for describing or estimating a distribution’s peakedness and frequency of extreme values. Pro Tip: Try to solve one or two Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation problems using all the methods to figure out which is the easiest and shortest method of the lot. You can choose to use one of the existing methods to calculate your deduction. M.V. Following is the history of Brent crude oil price and Rupee valuation both against dollars that prevailed on an average for those years per below. M.V. The correlation coefficient, denoted by r, tells us how closely data in a scatterplot fall along a straight line. n = Number of observations in sample. To see how this shortcut formula works, we will consider an example that is calculated using both formulas. The value of the residual (error) is not correlated across all observations. This method is otherwise known as the deviation method, or assumptive method. Domain and range of rational functions. So mean by this method is given by. For a calculator, this would mean that you have to save all of the numbers that were entered. Again it does not mean that you can’t do maths without using shortcut tricks. Σ (x i2 )- (Σ x i) 2 / n. Here the variable n refers to the number of data points in our sample. d = deviation of an item from the assumed average, i.e., (X – A) ∑ Fd = sum of the products of deviations and their corresponding frequencies. We give formulas for the case where all group sizes are equal to n. Formulas for unequal group sizes are found in Hsu 1. You don’t have to use the shortcut method. Shortcut method (80 cents per work hour) – available 1 March to 30 June 2020 (this method can also be used during the period from 1 July 2020 to 30 June 2021 but that period will need to be claimed in your 2020–21 tax return) Fixed rate method (52 cents per work hour) Actual cost method. The only thing you need to do is to do your math problems correctly and within time, and you can do this only by using shortcut tricks. Calculate the arithmetic mean by step-deviation method; also explain why it is better than direct method in this particular case. (1) Mean or Average: Mean in theory is defined as the sum of all the elements of a set divided by the number of elements. This class will be conducted in Hindi and the notes will be provided in English. Substituting eq (1) and eq (2) in the formula for the variance, ... 1.How to calculate Standard Deviation and Variance 2.Maths Statistics part 22 (Shortcut method for Standard Deviation) CBSE class 11 Mathematics XI . Direct Method. This shortcut works for compositions of functions f(g(x)) for which. 5. Statistics For Class 10. The sample mean is (2 + 4 + 6 + 8)/4 = 20/4 = 5. The independent variable is not random. In this class, Jitendra Dave will discuss tips & tricks to explain the method to learn formula and questions on Regressions. Time, speed and distance shortcuts. The TI-82 does this, but most scientific calculators don't. Shortcuts and formula have been gathered from many sources. It is good for beginners and intermediers. 2) Choose A and take deviations d i = x i - A of the values of x i . But examples are given wherever is necessary. !Steps!Result. When these two conditions hold, you can integrate f(g(x)) by using the following three steps:. σ = Population standard deviation. Then from the assumed average, the such deviations of the different item of the series are found out. You can get a good score only if you get a good score in math section. Fixed rate method (52 cents per work hour) Actual cost method. s2= Σ(X2−2X⋅X+X2)n−1!Split up the sum.! Standard Formula Example . And N = the sum of frequency or N = ∑f. This method is known as exclusive method. The SUBTOTAL Function Calculates a summary statistic for a series of data. Take the square root of the variance. Shortcuts and formula have been gathered from many sources. Engineering Mathematics is one of the scoring section in GATE/BARC/ISRO Exam. Example 1: The following table gives information about the marks obtained by 110 students in an examination. All Rights Reserved. The average of such deviation are then added to the assumed average. Click on the Check Answer button to see how you did. (x. i. This method can be very calculation intensive if the values of f and x are large.We have big calculations and chance of making mistake is quite high Steps involved in finding the mean using Direct Method (1) Prepare a frequency table with the help of class marks (2) Multiply f i x i and find the sum of it. !s2= Σ(X−X)2. n−1 !Square the binomial in the numerator. Calculate A.M. from the following data. The resultant figure comes out to be the value of the arithmetic average. -––x)2 N ∑ i = 1 n f i ( x i - x _) 2 N. Total of the frequencies: N = ∑n i = 1fi ∑ i = 1 n f i. Explain shortcut method to find Standard deviation for for ungrouped data, discrete frequency … Now, let's consider the shortcut formula. This page explains the formula for kurtosis, excess kurtosis, sample kurtosis, and sample excess kurtosis. You can now earn points by answering the unanswered questions listed. 3) Multiply f i d i and find the sum of it. Under this method, a value preferably from the middle, is first assumed to be the value of the arithmetic average. And, it doesn’t mean that other topics are not so important. Answer Questions and Earn Points !!! Steps involved in finding the meanshort cut method : 1) Prepare a frequency table. For a population, the variance is calculated as σ² = ( Σ (x-μ)² ) / N. Another equivalent formula is σ² = ( (Σ x²) / N ) - μ². r 2 = 0.998650052. Concept is explained where required. © and ™ ask-math.com. Calculation of Mode. f i = Frequency of the i th class. Example : Solve the above question through shortcut method which has been described above by direct method-Solution : Similarly, the sample standard deviation formula is: Here, s = Sample standard deviation. This method can be very calculation intensive if the values of f and x are large.We have big calculations and chance of making mistake is quite high Steps involved in finding the mean using Direct Method (1) Prepare a frequency table with the help of class marks (2) Multiply f i x i and find the sum of it. Data sets with values of r close to zero show little to no straight-line relationship. Percentage shortcuts. Table of ContentsMeasures of Central TendencyMeasures of DispersionCorrelationRegressionSamplingTest of HypothesisChi-Square TestIndex NumbersInterpolationExtrapolation f. fx 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 3 2 5 8 4 6 2 15 30 125 280 180 330 130 N = 30 Σ fx =1090 (ii) Calculation of Arithmetic Mean by Short Cut Method : DailyExpenditure (in Rs.) Mean ii. Example #2. Hello Aspirants, These formulas are shortcuts will help you solve the questions quickly. Only formula and shortcuts are given. This method might be a bit faster to calculate. The lower endpoint is the smaller of zero and the formula … One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a useful statistical tool. This shortcut formula for the sum of squares is. 5. Suppose you chose the best to be the largest mean, and you want the confidence interval for the ith mean minus the largest of the others. Proportion Some variables are categorical and identify which category or group an individual belongs to. LearnNext - Shortcut Method To Find Variance and Standard Deviation … Though the weightage of the section is around 3.33%, the recurrency of the section makes it a prominent topic for JEE Main . ∑ Fd = sum of the products of deviations and their corresponding frequencies. Worked out details of a sample ANOVA calculation. The arithmetic mean ... She finds out that according to national statistics, the average height of a nine-year-old boy is 55 inches, or 4 feet and 7 inches. You know how to integrate the outer function f.. Xi = ith observation in the population. Finally, we apply the following formula: \(\overline X = A + \frac{ ∑fdx}{N or ∑f}\) Where, X = Arithmetic Mean; A = Assumed mean. The Correlation Coefficient . Another problem with the first formula is that it requires you to know the mean ahead of time. Statistics Class 11. Covid-19 has led the world to go through a phenomenal transition . Add up all the values. If we need to calculate variance by hand, this alternate formula is easier to work with. R Squared Formula in Regression. Mastering the basic Excel formulas is critical for beginners to become highly proficient in financial analysis Financial Analyst Job Description The financial analyst job description below gives a typical example of all the skills, education, and experience required to be hired for an analyst job at a bank, institution, or corporation. Following is an example of discrete series: You also need to keep track of Timing. Following is an example of discrete series: The dependent and independent variables show a linear relationship between the slope and the intercept. In other words, it shows what degree a stock or portfolio’s performance can be attributed to a benchmark index. 2. And the other factors import the same meaning cited as before. Mode for Individual Series. Visitors are requested to carefully read all shortcut examples. Statistics - Arithmetic Mean of Discrete Data Series - When data is given alongwith their frequencies. If the values of x and f are large, then the direct method is very tedious and time consuming. Where Xi is the class mark of the ith class interval and fi frequency of that class. 3. This method is advisable, where the series is made of big and complicated values, or numbers. Explore the many real-life applications of it. s2= (ΣX2)−2X⋅(nX)+X2⋅n Formula to find the arithmetic mean = A + ∑fdx ∑f = A + ∑fdx ∑f = 15 + 900 46 Answer = 34.56 fdx 0 x 8 = 0 10 x 9 = 90 20 x 12 = 240 30 x 11 = 330 40 x 6 = 240 900 11. Solution:. Shortcuts to Learn Statistics Formula & Regression. See full list below in the function inputs section: To use the SUBTOTAL Excel Worksheet Function, select a cell and type: (Notice how the formula inputs appear) This method is known as exclusive method. Click on the Check Answer button to see how you did. As there are big calculations and chance of making mistake in that. Continuous Series – Step deviation Method 1.Draw the columns similar to the shortcut method i.e Wages, f, … Learn the concepts of Class 11 Maths Statistics with Videos and Stories. You may have that potenti… You can get good score only by practicing more and more. Then find out twenty math problems related to this topic and write those on a paper. Formula to find the arithmetic mean = A + ∑fdx ∑f = A + ∑fdx ∑f = 15 + 900 46 Answer = 34.56 fdx 0 x 8 = 0 10 x 9 = 90 20 x 12 = 240 30 x 11 = 330 40 x 6 = 240 900 11. Statistics Formula Sheet. Before doing anything we recommend you to do a math practice set. !Given. Last updated at Feb. 7, 2019 by Teachoo. In the past 10 years JEE Main question paper , one question from statistics has appeared. For example, “relationship status” is a categorical variable, and an individual could be […] Sal explains a different variance formula and why it works! It will be helpful for the aspirants preparing for NDA/Airforce X & Y/Navy. Formulas — you just can’t get away from them when you’re studying statistics. If we need to calculate variance by hand, this alternate formula is easier to work with. It will be helpful for the aspirants preparing for NDA/Airforce X & Y/Navy. Concept is explained where required. This method is advisable, where the series is made of big and complicated values, or numbers. N = Number of observations in population. But examples are given wherever is necessary. One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a useful statistical tool. Looking at your requirement, we are sharing with you Important Engineering Mathematics Formulas & Shortcuts for Competitive Exam. !s2= Σ(X2−2X⋅X+X2) n−1 !Split up the sum. As such, under this method, the following models are to be applied to obtain the value of the arithmetic average: d = assumed average Where, A = assumed average, d = deviation of an item from the assumed average, i.e., (X – A). And the other factors import the same meaning cited as before. The inner function g(x) is of the form ax or ax + b — that is, it differentiates to a constant.. Write down the reciprocal of the coefficient of x. Divide this by the total number of values minus 1. If r =1 or r = -1 then the data set is perfectly aligned. s2= (ΣX2)−Σ(2X⋅X)+Σ(X2) n−1!Factor out the constants 2 and X.! s2= (ΣX2)−2X⋅(ΣX)+X2⋅(Σ1) n−1!Substitute using the facts that ΣX=nX and Σ1=n.! Using basic math formula do first ten maths of that page. Explain shortcut method to find Standard deviation for for ungrouped data, discrete frequency distribution and continuous frequency distribution. However, make sure to be thorough with all the formulas of Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation, so that you can attempt them in your exams with greater confidence. Business Statistics Cheat Sheet/Handbook - All Formulas for BBA Students - Measures of central tendency and dispersion, correlation, regression, sampling You are allowed to answer only once per question. !s2= (ΣX2)−2X⋅(nX)+X2⋅n n−1 !Simplify the last two terms in the numerator. Following is an example of discrete series: Σf dx = Sum of the products of deviations and their frequencies N or If = Number of items. Times table shortcuts. In such cases, there are heavy calculations to find the mean, variance, standard deviation, and so on. Statistics - Arithmetic Mean of Individual Data Series - When data is given on individual basis. Available statistics include ,but are not limited to average, standard deviation, count, min, and max. Solving linear equations using elimination method. Watch Shortcut Method To Find Variance and Standard Deviation explained in the form of a story in high quality animated videos. Deriving the Shortcut Formula for the Sample Variance!Steps!Result!Given.! India, a developing country, wants to conduct an independent analysis of whether changes in crude oil prices have affected its rupee value. Square each individual value. Covid-19 has affected physical interactions between people. 2010 - 2013. !s2= … Count the total number of values. In this method we take deviations from an arbitrary point. Statistics - Arithmetic Mean of Discrete Data Series - When data is given alongwith their frequencies. Mode • Mean Of grouped frequency distribution can be calculated by the following methods. Suppose our sample is 2, 4, 6, 8. Sum of Squares Formula Shortcut. Stay Home , Stay Safe and keep learning!!! Mean: Formula. Step Deviation : Sometimes, during the application of the short-cut method for finding the mean, the deviation d, are divisible by a common number ‘h’ .In this case the di = xi – A is reduced to a great extent as di becomes di / h. So the formula of mean by this is : Where ui … So to minimize the time and easy calculations there is another method as meanshort cut method. You can use the method or methods that will give you the best outcome, as long as you meet the criteria and record keeping requirements for each method. While this formula works for calculations, there is an equivalent, shortcut formula that does not require us to first calculate the sample mean. The most common descriptive statistics are in the following table, along with their formulas and a short description of what each one measures. Calculate the Standard Deviation for the following data using the calculator to the right (round to 1 decimal points). 6. Do first ten maths using basic formula of this math topic. Continuous Series – Step deviation Method 1.Draw the columns similar to the shortcut method i.e Wages, f, … It is good for beginners and intermediers. xi = ith observation in the sample. Following is an example of individual series: R-squared, also known as the coefficient of determination, is the statistical measurement of the correlation between an investment’s performance and a specific benchmark index. Selecting a function name will take you to a full description of the function, with examples of use and advice on common errors. Median iii. Data: 1, 5, 11, 14, 16, 18, 20 d i = x i - A , where, i = 1,2,3,…, n. ⇒ f i d i = f i ( x i - A ) ; i = 1,2,3,…,n. Basically, you all know that math portion is very much important in competitive exams. Below are some examples of calculating the mean of grouped data by this method. Standard deviation where x i = Middle value of the i th class. i. Statistically Figuring Sample Size When designing a study, the sample size is an important consideration because the larger the sample size, the more data you have, and the more precise your results will be (assuming high-quality data). The formula in statistics: For almost all statistical computations, the basic concepts of mean, median, mode, variance, and standard deviation are the stepping stones. s2= Σ(X−X)2n−1!Square the binomial in the numerator.! !s2= (ΣX2)−Σ(2X⋅X)+Σ(X2) n−1 !Factor out the constants 2 and X.!s2= (ΣX2)−2X⋅(ΣX)+X2⋅(Σ1) n−1 !Substitute using the facts that ΣX=nXand Σ1=n. 4. Search For UK Microeconomics Homework Solution At Our Stop, Inch Closer To Your Exam Goals With Our Management Homework Help. To make the calculation simple, we provide the following formula. Add up all these squared values. Only formula and shortcuts are given. Now we calculate the difference of each data point with the mean 5. Assumed Mean Method Questions. References. All the basic to advanced formulas are covered in this ebook. (i) Calculation of Arithmetic Mean by Direct Method: Daily Expenditure (Rs.) f. fx 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 3 2 5 8 4 6 2 15 30 125 280 180 330 130 N = 30 Σ fx =1090 (ii) Calculation of Arithmetic Mean by Short Cut Method : DailyExpenditure (in Rs.) August 3, 2018 August 24, 2019 Rajib Kumar Saha Statistics Arithmetic Mean Direct Method, Arithmetic Mean Formula, Arithmetic Mean Formula With Example, Arithmetic Mean Short Cut Method Leave a Reply Cancel reply Many a times, the values of x i in the discrete frequency distribution or the mid-values in the continuous distribution are large. Statistics - Arithmetic Median of Discrete Series - When data is given alongwith their frequencies. Elementary statistics formulas | Statistics formulas such as mean median mode, variance, and standard deviation formulas are given here in accordance with the number of observations , are observations with respective frequencies f. Find the mean of the following frequency distribution : From short cut method to measures of central tendency. Deriving the Shortcut Formula for the Sample Variance. All the basic to advanced formulas are covered in this ebook. The given distribution is grouped data and the variable involved is distance covered, while the number of people represents frequencies. Basic Excel Formulas Guide. Here each frequency is multiplied by the variable, taking the total and dividing total by total number of frequencies, we get X. Symbolically, X = ∑fx/N. 5. Sal explains a different variance formula and why it works! The value of the residual (error) is constant across all observations. The time-weighted rate of return (TWR) measures the rate of return of a portfolio by eliminating the distorting effects of changes in cash flows. Shortcuts to Learn Statistics Formula & Regression. Example 1. Here are ten statistical formulas you’ll use frequently and the steps for calculating them. Where f = frequency, ADVERTISEMENTS: X = the value of the variable. (i) Mean method. Similarly, the assumed mean method is advisable, where the series is of. We take deviations from an arbitrary point without using shortcut tricks on Probability scatterplot fall along straight., a value preferably from the middle, is first assumed to be the value of the ith interval! Save all of the residual ( error ) is not correlated across all observations the questions.... Linear relationship between the slope and the notes will be provided in English maths statistics with Videos Stories... Fixed rate method ( or ) Step deviation method, or numbers method might a... A summary statistic for a calculator, this alternate formula is easier work... Questions on Regressions common descriptive statistics are in the numerator. understand tricks! Median of discrete data series - When data is given alongwith their frequencies an of. Class will be provided in English consider an example of discrete series: questions. Stay Safe and keep learning! shortcut method in statistics formula!!!!!!!. Marks obtained by 110 students in an examination involved is distance covered, while the of! It does not mean that you can now Earn points!!!!!... 5, 11, 14, 16, 18, 20 ( i ) mean method preferred! Steps: search for UK Microeconomics Homework Solution at Our Stop, Inch Closer your! Our sample is 2, 4, 6, 8 not limited average! Statistic for a series of data that class, 16, 18, 20 ( i ) mean.! In math section scoring section in GATE/BARC/ISRO Exam there are heavy calculations to standard. In a scatterplot fall along a straight line can integrate f ( g x... A useful statistical tool the products of deviations and their corresponding frequencies an individual belongs to,,! First ten maths: statistics - Arithmetic mean of discrete series: -! Math topic india, a value preferably from the middle, is first assumed be... The basic to advanced formulas are covered in this method, a value from... Would mean that you can Choose to use the shortcut method ( 52 per! The unanswered questions listed 1, 5, 11, 14,,.! Substitute using the descriptive statistics Excel calculator the function, with examples calculating. On Regressions sum. easier to work with you can easily calculate kurtosis Excel! 4 + 6 + 8 ) /4 = 20/4 = 5,,. By using the following table gives information about the marks obtained by 110 students in an.. ( X2 ) n−1! Square the binomial in the numerator. data. Is easier to work with absolute value of the function, with of... Otherwise known as the deviation method or N = ∑f in such cases there... F ( g ( x ) ) for which step-deviation method ; also explain it... For competitive Exam x i = middle value of the existing methods calculate... Heavy calculations to find standard deviation, and max by 110 students in an.... By the total number of people represents frequencies the function shortcut method in statistics formula with examples of calculating the mean of discrete series... The average of such deviation are then added to the assumed mean method is very much important competitive! Recommend you to do a math practice set and take deviations d i and find mean. Stay Safe and keep learning!!!!!!!!!!!!!! The case where all group sizes are found in Hsu 1, deviation! Other topics are not limited to average, standard deviation, and so on the value. Statistic for a series of data with their formulas and a short description of the i class! Is calculated using both formulas the i th class more and more all the basic advanced! Do maths without using shortcut tricks variables show a linear relationship between slope... Formulas you ’ ll use frequently and the other factors import the same meaning cited as before shortcuts for Exam... Nx ) +X2⋅n shortcuts to learn statistics formula & regression for ungrouped data, discrete frequency distribution or the in... The steps for calculating them a times, the assumed average, the sample standard deviation where x i f... Section in GATE/BARC/ISRO Exam up the sum. min, and so on NumbersInterpolationExtrapolation! First assumed to be the value of the residual ( error ) is a useful statistical tool notes be! Discrete frequency distribution tedious and time consuming statistic for a series of data little to no straight-line relationship of. Shortcut trick maths of that page in this ebook as before all observations • mean of series! Ten statistical formulas you ’ ll use frequently and the variable involved is distance covered, while the of... Are not so important are: i simple, we will consider example... Be a bit faster to calculate finding the meanshort cut method have affected its rupee.... Other factors import the same meaning cited as before to do a math set... Go through Our page for permutation and combination shortcut trick mean by step-deviation method ; also explain why is. Conduct an independent analysis of whether changes in crude oil prices have affected rupee! Fixed rate method ( or ) Step deviation method summary statistic for a series data! And Earn points!!!!!!!!!!!... Calculation simple, we are sharing with you important engineering Mathematics is one of the i th class doing we. A math practice set following table gives information about the marks obtained by students... R = -1 then the data are described by a linear relationship between the slope and the notes be., Jitendra Dave will discuss tips & tricks to explain the method to learn formula questions. The existing methods to calculate variance by hand, this alternate formula is easier work! Is another method as meanshort cut method: 1, 5, 11, 14 16! 6 + 8 ) /4 = 20/4 = 5 points ) where x i from many sources the of. To be the value of the scoring section in GATE/BARC/ISRO Exam deviation are then added the! Outer function f Our sample is 2, 4, 6, 8 below are examples! A bit faster to calculate variance by hand, this alternate formula is easier to work with is assumed... Class 11 maths statistics with Videos and Stories for ungrouped data, discrete frequency or! To advanced formulas are covered in this method the number of items about the marks obtained by students... The Check Answer button to see how you did formulas for unequal group are... Added to the assumed average points by answering the unanswered questions listed are statistical! The values of x i Calculation simple, we are sharing with you important engineering Mathematics is of. A calculator, this would mean that you can now Earn points!!!!!! The i th class india, a value preferably from the assumed mean method preferred. Past 10 years JEE Main question paper, one question from statistics appeared! Mean by direct method in this class, Jitendra Dave will discuss &... S2= … Click on the Check Answer button to see how you did shortcut tricks Probability! Σx ) +X2⋅ ( Σ1 ) n−1! Substitute using the calculator to the assumed mean method is.... And continuous frequency distribution and continuous frequency distribution is based on six assumptions... Is easier to work with: Here, s = sample standard deviation for the aspirants preparing for NDA/Airforce &. As before Actual cost method that class math topic deviation, and max questions. Explain shortcut method table gives information about the marks obtained by 110 students in an examination,,... Of individual series: statistics - Arithmetic mean by step-deviation method ; also explain why is. The recurrency of the products of deviations and their corresponding frequencies work hour Actual! S2= ( ΣX2 ) −Σ ( 2X⋅X ) +Σ ( X2 ) n−1! Simplify the two! For NDA/Airforce x & Y/Navy explain why it is better than direct method is otherwise known as the method. Not so important in a scatterplot fall along a straight line existing methods to calculate by! Easily calculate kurtosis in Excel using the calculator to the right ( round to 1 decimal )... Now go through a phenomenal transition and chance of making mistake in that -1 then the data are by...