About 200 were Australian merchant seamen (Gill, 1968:557). Merchant men suffered the greatest percentage of deaths of any service and often the vessels were unarmed in defence. faster ships GUS: Mediterranean to Chesapeake Bay: 21 December 1942 27 May 1945 92 slower ships HG: Gibraltar to Liverpool: 26 September 1939 19 September 1942 89 replaced by MKS convoys after Operation Torch: HX: Halifax Harbour (later New York City) to Liverpool: 16 Sept 1939 23 May 1945 377 9-knot convoys for ships of sustained speeds less than 15 knots HXF During World War II, merchant ships carrying valuable cargoes were attacked not only on the open seas, but also within sight of the Australian coastline on much-frequented coastal trade routes. Keith Smith's album 1943 This intimate story of a father’s near death in Australian waters during WWII, told by his daughter, is a window into the untold story of thousands of merchant seamen working off the coast of Australia who were under the threat of attack every time they left port. Jan 10, 2018 - This board is a collection of merchant navy info from Ww2. After the First World War King George V, in recognition of the contribution made to the British war effort by merchant ships, granted the title of ‘Merchant Navy’ to non-military sailors. In mid-1942 a series of merchant ships were sunk with great loss of life, so it was decided to sail ships in convoy with Royal Australian Navy vessels as escorts. Over the years, there have been many government inquiries and much research into the issue, most notably the comprehensive Crawford report on the revitalisation of Australian shipping in the early 1980s. The ship was last seen at 4am on the 28th November off Whitby. The official number is the six digit number issued by the Shipping Registration Office to Australian registered ships. units maintained continuous patrols in the Nauru-Ocean Island area. Hundreds of service personnel and merchant seamen were killed in these tragedies. It is for use only at sea and officially never on land, but can be used by private citizens. Over 2700 Liberty Ships were launched during the war and by 1945 they comprised the greatest standardized fleet ever built. Armed merchant ship 1939–1949 HMAS Westralia: Underway replenishment ship Leaf: … The following narrative briefly sets this out. ‘Sparrow Force’ embarked Zealandia arrived Koepang on the 12th, escorted by Westralia (70 Officers — 1,330 men). The Website for Merchant Ships during WW2. Our collection contains a wealth of material to help you research and find your connection with the wartime experiences of the brave men and women who served in Australia’s military forces. During the Second World War, 41 allied naval and merchant ships were sunk off Australia's coast by enemy action. The Australian War Memorial has placed the names of 845 of them who are known to have died on war service during World War II on the commemorative roll. However, the Dutch were able to save much of their merchant fleet that was located in Australian and Sri Lankan ports. Evacuations & Landings: The contribution made by merchant shipping in these operations. In all, 30 merchant ships were lost by enemy attack in Australian waters, with 654 deaths. REFERENCE. Merchant seafarers often found themselves in the front lines of the war at sea. Their construction at hundreds of shipyards throughout America was a significant achievement in engineering design for mass production. The army took control of the wharf from the waterside workers unopposed. Of the ships arriving at Durban only ARUNDEL CASTLE, ATHLONE CASTLE, MONARCH OF BERMUDA and ORONSAY sailed for the passage … War Cabinet Room . Manned by merchant seamen, they were an emergency response to a critical shortage of maritime cargo ships in the early years of the war, exacerbated by German U-Boat activities in the Atlantic. Italy joined Axis 10th June 1940. German U-Boat attacks off the Australian Coast during WW2 Attacks one ship and sinks two others . Companies of soldiers worked 12-hour shifts until relieved by another crew. July 1941 1. Alert: These pdf documents have been created from scanned images and accordingly are large in file size. One was ‘The fitting of catapults to suitable merchant ships’ and the second, ‘the fitting of the simplest possible flight decks and landing equipment to suitable merchant ships‘. The Register provides information about all sea-going merchant ships, including their condition. At sea, it is the only flag allowable for merchant ships registered in Australia under the Navigation and Shipping Act 1912 and The Shipping Registration Act 1981. Hospital ships were crewed by merchant seamen. 2020 It aims to help researchers find pictures of ships in the Australian trade. A list of the crew accompanied these agreements. Evacuations & Landings: The contribution made by merchant shipping in these operations. The library does have collections of books, dealing with most aspects of the Merchant Navy. Only 64 of the 332 crew and medical personnel on board survived. Ships that sailed independently, rather than in convoys, ran a greater risk of being torpedoed. The history of the Royal Australian Navy traces the development of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) from the colonisation of Australia by the British in 1788. For merchant mariners, 'last ship' indicates the name of the ship on which the mariner served at the war's end or at the time of their death. Forty four Allied merchant vessels were lost by enemy action in Australian waters in World … At one time in 1943 there were 18 ships alongside the wharves at Townsville docks and 64 awaiting berths, anchored in Cleveland Bay. Other coastal vessels used in the evacuation of north Queensland civilians included the SS Katoomba, Taroona and Wandana. Port operations in Townsville and Cairns were partly controlled by RAN personnel although cooperation by all services was essential to make the most of the limited berths and cargo handling facilities. As such she was bombed and heavily damaged in Darwin harbour by Japanese aircraft on 19 February 1942. Industrial action did occur but it did not benefit seamen as much as has been said and was almost always entered into on the basis of pay, extreme danger, or working and living conditions. Among the best-known attacks are the sinking of HMAS Sydney by a German raider in … Royal Australian Navy History, WWII Merchant ship movement records - Australia; Ron Wylie, Australian merchant navy: stories of the war at sea Background information. Figures from the Seamen’s Union of Australia show that 386 members of the union lost their lives during World War II. 3 September is Merchant Navy Day, which was first officially commemorated in New Zealand in 2010. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, a group of specialist were assembled in the USA and sent to Australia to scour all the harbours between Adelaide and Cairns and identify and commandeer every small ship they could find that could support … Merchant ships of Australia include all merchant ships designed, built, or operated by Australia. The maritime history of Australia in peace and war has been until recently a largely neglected subject. With a total tonnage of 196073 the ships ranged from the 12568 ton Consult the Miramar Ship Index (£) website, a historical database listing some categories of merchant and naval ships. Subcategories. This is the Tasman Sea's worst maritime disaster. The National Archives of Australia has a large number of record series concerning ships’ crews and the merchant navy. Following a number of gunnery and torpedo attacks on merchant ships along the New South Wales coast, the Naval Board instituted a system of coastal convoys as a temporary protective measure. Merchant seamen serving with the Allied Forces during World War II suffered a greater percentage of fatalities than any other branch of the armed forces. You can search either by the ship’s name, or the ship's official number for a more accurate search. One of the largest strikes, at the Port of Cairns during April and May 1945, was over ‘danger money’ for loading ammunition and ordnance. He was also on the last voyage of the tea clipper CUTTY SARK before it was docked indefinitely in Greenwich London. To secure the service the Queensland government agreed to pay the British India Company a subsidy to form the Queensland Steam Shipping Company (later the Australasian United Steam Navigation Company–AUSN) to operate a coastal shipping service which proved of great value to local commerce and primary industry. The entire Japanese population of Thursday Island had earlier been shipped south for internment aboard SS Zealandia. Images from the museum's photograph and paintings and object collections are being digitised and added to the collection online search with new items added regularly so don’t forget to check back. After failing to arrive at Leith on the 29th November the ship was officially recorded with Lloyd's as missing/untraced on the 29th December 1944 and a Joint Arbitration Committee considered her lost by "marine causes" A Missing Ship Committee considered he lost the same day of her last sighting. Cargo ship Stronsa Firth, 491grt, (Firth Shipping Co.) loaded with a cargo of barley at Kings Lynn for Leith, sailed independently on the 26th November 1944. War Dead 1939-45: Search memorials by name and by ship. Queensland coastal merchant shipping continued operating throughout World War II, despite the risk of attacks by Japanese submarines and aircraft. The definition of … Australia was the only true "capital ship" to serve in the RAN. HMAS Melbourne steams into San Diego Harbor, California (USA), in 1977. The war years of 1939-1945. No other group of New Zealand civilians faced such risks during wartime. Merchant Ships of Australia in World War 2. For merchant mariners, 'last ship' indicates the name of the ship on which the mariner served at the war's end or at the time of their death. The date marks the sinking of the first Allied merchant ship in 1939, just hours after the Second World War began. By the early 1900s Queensland had developed a substantial fleet of local merchant ships operating from Torres Strait to Brisbane. His Majesty's Australian Transports [HMAT] Ships. The ships are listed alphabetically by name in the paper catalogue. Most Dutch crewmen were Indonesian nationals. WW2 Honours and Gallantry Indicates any Imperial honour or gallantry award conferred on an individual during World War Two, and that entitles the recipient to use a post-nominal after their name. Another Howard Smith vessel, the SS Canberra was heavily strafed by Japanese aircraft off Cape York in March 1943 with many of the crew injured. The debate over the need for Australian-flagged merchant ships has a long history running right back to federation. This is the speech by Lieutenant Commander Desmond Woods, RANR, at the Australian Merchant Navy Day of Remembrance, 8 April 2018. Among a number of merchant vessels lost off the Queensland coast during the war was the AUSN coastal steamer Macumba, which was sunk by Japanese aircraft in August 1943 while on a run from Brisbane to Darwin with supplies and war materials. Crew lists, originally termed muster-rolls or muster-books, began in the 18th century and were initially kept in order to collect a levy from seamen's wages for a relief fund, and as a record of the names, ratings, dates of entry and final discharge for all men serving on board a ship. Much of the Burns Philp merchant fleet was requisitioned after the Japanese entered World War II. It’s reported that 30 merchant ships were lost by enemy attack in Australia waters with 654 deaths. Until 1859, vessels of the Royal Navy made frequent trips to the new colonies. The Walk of Remembrance and Centaur Memorial honours the ships and the brave men and women who gave up their lives for Australia. Flotilla Australia formerly Port Australia (off site) John E Hoskin - Australian Shipping Lines and Ship Pictures The Australian Merchant Navy (off-site) Ron (Steve) Wylie Sailing Day 1897 New York Times-Illustrated Magazine Article Small Ships Section employed over 3,000 Australian civilians including one woman who served alongside 1,372 U.S. Army Personnel along with New Zealanders, Canadians, Chinese, Danes, British, Filipino, Dutch, Austrian, Torres Strait Islanders, French, even an Eskimo. This port carried the brunt of cargo handling until Cairns became a US transshipment port in 1943. When the RAN was first founded, it was decided that a capital ship would be constructed to serve as the fleet flagship. The army eventually sent some 800 troops of the Australian 6th Division from Kairi on the Tableland to the wharves, with instructions to ‘shoot the bastards if they don’t leave within 30 seconds’. The Royal Navy’s biggest ever fleet depended on its Merchant Navy tankers and freighters to be their fuel and ammunition supply train in the vast Pacific as the Allies advanced on the home islands of Japan in 1945. When not committed to military transport, these ships were employed to carry various commodity exports to Britain and France. Some of the most useful include: The Mercantile Navy list and maritime directory Westralia with merchant vessels Skagerak, Vito and Kenilworthevacuated women and children from Nauru and Ocean Island reaching Australia without incident. Starboard side view of the Armed Merchant Cruiser HMS Kanimbla (Source: AWM 059482), AHS Centaur - sunk off Queensland 14 May 1943. The Australian Civil Ensign, or Australian Red Ensign, is a red version of the Australian National flag. Details about the role of the Australian Merchant Navy and the role Australian merchant ships played in World War II can be found at Merchant Ships of Australia in World War 2. The Australian passenger vesselManunda prior to being requisitioned and fitted out as an Australian Hospital Ship in May 1940. KEY. During those turbulent days, 76 merchant ships were lost in Australian waters claimed by mines, Submarine torpedoes, shelling … Capital ships. Ships sunk during WW2 Published Newcastle Herald 8/2/1993 53–57. The term Merchant Navy refers to a nation’s commercial shipping and crews. Dutch shipping and crews based in Australia made a major contribution to the war effort in the movement of Allied troops and supplies to the New Guinea and Pacific island war zones. Soon after the commencement of the war the Naval Board instituted a system of escorted coastal convoys as a protective measure. KEY. The Small Ships were manned by Merchant Seaman from all over the world. KPM vessels were also allocated to the Allied Consultative Shipping Council, formed by the Australian government in March 1942. Merchant ships were attacked not only in distant waters but also within sight of the Australian coastline while traversing much frequented trade routes. More than 140 New Zealand merchant seafarers lost their lives, and a similar number were taken prisoner. Come and see why. Australian War Memorial, Canberra. We pay our respects to elders past and present. In north Queensland they provided logistic support for US Engineers engaged in airfield construction, unloading heavy equipment at temporary jetties along the coast of Cape York. Merchant ships were attacked not only in distant waters but also within sight of the Australian coastline while traversing much frequented trade routes. German Commerce Raiders mine Australian Waters four ships sunk and one severely damaged . World War I merchant ships of Australia‎ (3 P) World War II merchant ships of Australia‎ (13 P) C Westraliaand other ships of R.A.N. The library does have collections of books, dealing with most aspects of the Merchant Navy. Although Australia was remote from the main battlefronts, there was considerable Axis naval activity in Australian waters during the Second World War.A total of 54 German and Japanese warships and submarines entered Australian waters between 1940 and 1945 and attacked ships, ports and other targets. The Australian War Memorial acknowledges the traditional custodians of country throughout Australia. My pop served on these ships below that I know of and anyone is free to add pins if u find them. The Stevedoring Commission marked the beginning of the end of the old system of waterside employment. The Australian War Memorial’s repository of resources related to the service of the merchant navy during war time is limited, although it does contain a collection of cuttings, ship lists and an interview with the captain of the Warilda. Many Australians are just not ‘sea-minded’. Among the longest serving merchant ships on the Queensland coast run was the AUSN Company steamer Ormiston. Australian hospital ships were manned by Merchant Navy crews. Consult the Crew List Index Project (CLIP) website, which has information about merchant ships from 1861 to 1913. But it was not the end of waterfront strikes in north Queensland ports. American Liberty Ships were a major component of Allied Merchant Navy shipping unloading in Queensland ports during World War II. Use this login for Shop items, and image, film, sound reproductions, Researching Australian military service: Merchant Navy, First World War, Researching Australian military service: Merchant Navy, Second World War, Commemorating Australia’s merchant seamen - those who died as a result of their service in war are commemorated on the Australian War Memorial’s, Merchant Navy service records - National Archives of Australia. 8-inch gun Cruisers Australia and Canberra were offered to the Admiralty. As the outbreak of World War II edged closer in 1939, the British merchant fleet remained the largest in the world, employing some 200,000 men and women. For merchant mariners, 'last ship' indicates the name of the ship on which the mariner served at the war's end or at the time of their death. ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY IN AND AROUND AUSTRALIA DURING WW2 DURING WW2 . War Dead 1939-45: Search memorials by name and by ship. This left Cruisers Perth and Adelaide, Armed Merchant Cruisers Westralia and Manoora, and Sloops Swan, Yarra, and Parramatta for service in Australian waters. The Great War 1914-1919 and the Second World War 1939-1945 followed, both with, for the first time, selective then heavy demands on merchant … You can search for a vessel using basic details about the ship. It is not generally known that all hospital ships, royal fleet auxiliaries, armed merchant cruisers and most of the so-called Woolworth carriers of World War 2 … "Australia @ War" WWII … Fleet: Vessel: Built: Years in Service : Tons: Adelaide: 1911: 1914 interned Sao Paulo, 1916 seized by Portugal renamed Cunene. The Australian War Memorial was voted the number one landmark in Australia by travellers in the 2016 Trip Advisor awards. Signal Letters: Kerry Stewart tells the intimate story of … Websites. During the Second World War, 41 allied naval and merchant ships were sunk off Australia's coast by enemy action. World War II merchant ship movement records for Australia. They may take time to download. Pillaging from the wharves had risen during the early war years, resulting in the establishment of the Stevedoring Industry Commission to bring organisation and stability to an industry plagued by appalling industrial relations. During 1942 Townsville handled 428,500 tons of war materials, 5500 vehicles, and 70,000 tons of oil and petroleum products. The Walk of Remembrance and Centaur Memorial honours the ships and the brave men and women who gave up their lives for Australia. Visit the Ship portraits collection highlights from the National Maritime Collection. Official logs are found with the agreements and crew lists, where they survive. 10 am to 5 pm daily (except Christmas Day), Get your ticket to visit: awm.gov.au/visit, Copyright From February the shipping industry came under government regulated control involving prices, profits, materials, investments and wages. During the Second World War Merchant Navy ships carrying valuable cargoes were at just as much risk as Royal Australian Navy (RAN) warships. June 1940. A fleet of transport ships was leased by the Commonwealth government for the specific purpose of transporting the various AIF formations to their respective overseas destinations. A further 88 civilians were killed in air raids. You can search either by the ship’s name, or the ship's official number for a more accurate search. [Register of Merchant Ships Completed in 1913 by Starke / Schell] DUNTROON 1935 O.N.159556, 10,346 gross tons, 472ft x 65.3ft, twin screw, speed 19 knots, accommodation for 373 passengers. Figures published by the Seaman’s Union of Australia (SUA) in 1972 indicate that 386 members of the union lost their lives during the Second World War. HMAS Manoora, an Australian coastal passenger liner, was requisitioned on the 14 October 1939 by the Naval Board. On sailing from Capetown 30.7, CERAMIC (for Australia) and RANGITATA, MATAROA and TAMAROA remained behind, the remaining ships were escorted by the armed merchant cruiser QUEEN OF BERMUDA to rendezvous with the Durban ships sailing 3.8. Many ships were torpedoed or bombed; survivors sometimes spent days or weeks in lifeboats before being rescued. Your generous donation will be used to ensure the memory of our Defence Forces and what they have done for us, and what they continue to do for our freedom remains – today and into the future. For Naval communications the Coastal Radio Stations added the number 6 to their call-signs. The Australian Department of Veterans Affairs nominal roll records 3,500 Australian merchant seamen serving in World War II in Australian registered ships. The Dutch merchant fleet’s presence in the South West Pacific Area increased in 1944 as about 30 KPM vessels assisted in General MacArthur’s island hopping campaign. Sometimes a log book, with details of the ship’s voyages (see section 6), was filed along with the agree… WW2 Honours and Gallantry Indicates any Imperial honour or gallantry award conferred on an individual during World War Two, and that entitles the recipient to use a post-nominal after their name. This is the speech by Lieutenant Commander Desmond Woods, RANR, at the Australian Merchant Navy Day of Remembrance, 8 April 2018. The supply of the war effort in to and out of Queensland required vast infrastructure. From modest beginnings in Townsville with the establishment of coastal shipping links from Brisbane to north Queensland and the south-west Pacific, Burns Philp steadily expanded into a range of merchant and ship-owning activities, including Pacific island plantations and trading centres. Search for a registered ship on the Australian General and International Shipping Registers. Starting with SS America, laid down in 1937, and ending with SS United States in 1952, the U.S. Maritime Commission built nearly 6,000 ships under the mandate of the 1936 Merchant Marine Act. Thus Perth Radio Station became VIP6 and Darwin became VID6. Early months 1941 1. Don Fraser, “’Men of a service’ : Australian merchant seamen”, Wartime 5, Summer 1999, pp. A port controller was appointed for Townsville in September 1942. These continued, to the anger of Australian and US troops and the embarrassment the Curtin government. Ships that sailed independently, rather than in convoys, ran a greater risk of being torpedoed. However, it was still important to record the movements of merchant vessels and so the Registrar General o… With a mem… Soon after the commencement of the war the Naval Board instituted a system of escorted coastal convoys as a protective measure. Following a number of gunnery and torpedo attacks on merchant ships along the New South Wales coast, the … Contrary to popular belief, merchant seamen were not well-paid, did not have comfortable working hours, and their living conditions were often very poor. Because of its length of coastline and many ports, by the 1880s the colony of Queensland had recognized the need to establish its own coastal shipping service rather than rely on external shipping lines to transport its cargoes of rainforest timber, sugar, bananas, coal and meat. Served WW2 surviving a submarine attack in 1942. German-Australian Line / Deutsche-Australische Dampfschiffs Gesellschaft, Hamburg ... visit the Ship Descriptions (onsite) or Immigrant Ship web site. Details about the role of the Australian Merchant Navy and the role Australian merchant ships played in World War II can be found at Merchant Ships of Australia in World War 2. Jenkins, David, "Battle Surface - Japan's Submarine War against Australia 1942 - 44", Random House Australia, 1992 . A staggering 79 Royal Netherlands Merchant Line (KPM) vessels were lost in Japanese air and sea attacks during evacuation of the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) in early 1942. These merchant ship papers have been scanned from the original documents and are posted in PDF format. US ARMY SMALL SHIPS SECTION UNITED STATES ARMY SERVICES OF SUPPLY (USASOS) IN AUSTRALIAN WATERS DURING WWII . Australian military units first deployed in 1885, to the Sudan and then in 1899 to 1902 to the Boer War. Given the union’s claim of a total membership of 4,500 at the beginning of the war, the overall fatality rate among seamen members of the SUA during the Second World War was 8.5 per cent, a rate higher than that sustained by Australia’s fighting services. Fifty four Axis surface raiders and submarines carried out these attacks, sinking 53 merchant ships and three warships within the Australia Station, resulting in the deaths of over 1,751 Allied military personnel, sailors and civilians. Figures from the Seamen’s Union of Australia show that 386 members of the union lost their lives during World War II. It was the Merchant Navy, including Australian ships, which fuelled and supplied the British Pacific Fleet. In the early morning darkness of 14 May 1943, the hospital ship Centaur was sunk by the Japanese submarine I-177 off the coast of Moreton Bay, 80 kilometres north-east of Brisbane, going down in 3 minutes. Sadly today, the Australian Merchant Fleet has but something like 45 ships operating on our vast coastline. Places of Pride, the National Register of War Memorials, is a new initiative designed to record the locations and photographs of every publicly accessible memorial across Australia. Of the 332 medical personnel and civilian crew aboard, 268 were killed (Source: AWM 302800), © The State of Queensland (Department of Environment and Science) 2014–2020. Crew lists and agreements were introduced in 1835. During World War Two, Japanese submarines and German raiders sank 30 merchant ships in Australian waters, with the loss of 654 sailors. Armed merchant ship 1939–1949 HMAS ... Amphibious warfare ships of Australia (en) Liens externes (en) « Current Ships », sur navy.gov.au (consulté le 19 novembre 2016). By mid-1942 Liberty Ships were familiar sights at Brisbane and Townsville, discharging everything from amphibious vehicles and jeeps to crated aircraft, fuel, ammunition and airfield bitumen. Ships built by U.S. Maritime Commission 1939 to 1947 . This is a list of Allied ships sunk by Axis warships operating in Australian waters during the Second World War. The impact of the war on merchant seamen was little known except to people in the towns along the coast where it happened, and to the families and friends of the men whose lives were so imperilled. 4 September: Admiralty orders the introduction of convoy system for merchant ships. In January and February 1942 SS Ormiston was used for the compulsory evacuation of civilians from Thursday, Horn and Hammond Islands in the Torres Strait. This is the story of the 'fourth service' at war. Finding an image. 7 December 1941 1. Can anyone help me with more information? Surviving Dutch merchantmen and tankers were assigned to the Allied shipping pool which then allocated them to the US Army where they were designated as US Armed Transports (USAT). Victoria Barracks in Melbourne became the Headquarters for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) since its formation in 1911.. Australia was divided into a number of naval zones which more or less ignored each other. You can search for a vessel using basic details about the ship. This category has the following 8 subcategories, out of 8 total. There is virtually no record in Australia of the contribution that KPM ships, their officers and crews made to the Allied war effort during World War II, and in particular in the Battle for Australia in the years 1941/1945. Built 1935 by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne (Yard No.1460) for Melbourne SS Co, Melbourne and used on Australian coastal services. This action ensured Australian troops had ammunition and supplies when they landed at Balikpapan, Borneo, in July 1945. Both proposals were approved by the Admiralty and early in 1941 the work began on the conversion of the Hurricane aircraft to Sea Hurricanes for catapult operations. The KPM had over 20 merchant ships in Australian waters by early 1942, some fitted with a naval gun manned by RAN gunners. 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